Much has been said favouring oils for arthritics. In the last chapter, for instance, we learned to keep acids away from the lubricating oils in our bodies— and why this is essential if we expect to recover from arthritis.
Most of this book has been urging you to add more oils to your system. Before anyone gains the impression that they should eat every oil-bearing food in sight, perhaps the time has come to remind you that there are “bad” oils, too.
To rid yourself of arthritis takes more than just eating chunks of fat. Such food can contain “wrong oils” which can clog your blood-vessel “pipelines.” This is worse than gaining no oils at all. If you select oily substances which are incorrect, they will do little except add to your weight, create excess energy (fat) or even lead to high blood pressure, gall-bladder trouble or heart disease.
So, we must know how to differentiate between the very specific oils we need for lubrication and just any oil at all.
Here is a helpful chart which arthritics should consult to recognise the “wrong” oil in foods.
All meat fats        all vegetable oils
(Eat lean meat instead!)
Bacon fat        all substitutes for butter
Cold cut meat fat    Avocado oil
Corned beef fat    Corn oil
Ham fat        Cottonseed oil
Lamb fat        Olive oil
Pork chop fat        Peanut butter
Veal fat        Soya bean oil
Any oil with sugar in it
Avoiding the oils in the foods listed above will play a deciding role in how long it will take an arthritic to become well.
Until now, most people probably thought that oil is oil, good for energy only. Nothing could be further from the truth.
Dr. P. Hawk is one expert who has done much to prove that all oils are not alike in their value to the body. In his book, Practical Physiological Chemistry, Dr. Hawk makes an outstanding contribution to medicine. Among other things, he says in effect: THAT DIETARY OIL IS UNIQUE IN ITS POTENTIAL POSSIBILITIES BECAUSE IT CAN BY-PASS THE LIVER.
The Right Oils, and How They Work for You
Having learned which oily foods to ignore, we will now go on to name the best foodstuffs. But just before we do, let us consult Dr. Hawk’s findings on why dietary oils are good for you. He made the following points … we are restating now in our own words. . . .
Serve as a vehicle to introduce the oil-soluble vitamins, A, D, and E.
Influence the rate of calcification in bones and other tissues.
Aid in the digestion and absorption of other foods.
Repair organic damage, as well as regenerating new tissues.
Carry vitamin K, the anti-haemorrhage substance, into the liver.
With all these benefits—the five described above, plus many more—all of us should seek out the right oil-bearing foods and make them a part of our daily diet.
Where can we find the correct oil ingredients? Here are six of the best sources, in the order of their effectiveness.
Cod-liver oil.
Eggs (soft boiled).
Certain fish.
Cheddar cheese.
The shortness of this chapter should not mislead you. The past few paragraphs hold tremendous significance for your future. The conflict between right and wrong oils has bearing on more ailments than just arthritis. It is our firm belief that scientists, in years to come, will discover that oil deficiencies and oil tensions are factors in 80 per cent, of the diseases which kill mankind.
Why let your cells become disorganised, your blood vessels suffer occlusion, and general mayhem run wild in your body? Choose the right oils—they are so few in number—and practise common-sense dietary habits.


It is difficult to understand Herr E. in terms of conscious and unconscious, for everything he does seems to be unconscious. If, however, we resist using these terms, we can ask questions with more quantitative answers. What process does he identify himself with? What process does he experience as being outside of himself or as happening to him?
He identifies himself as being on vacation. He doesn’t like working and has no time for it. He is angry at the authorities for not giving him money for vacation. This ‘vacationer’ let us say, is his primary process, the one he identifies with.
His secondary process, the process with which he is in conflict and which he experiences as, happening to him from the outside, is the ‘unhealthy’ social worker. The authorities are sick, steal from him and need help. The vacationer is well but the authorities, in his opinion, are sick. It is important that Herr E. sees only the ‘others’ as ill; he, as the vacationer, is in order. We will return to this statement later on.


On his show many years ago, Art Linkletter was interviewing children, and they came up with the following answers to a question he posed: “You can’t play with toys anymore…the government pays for everything…you don’t go to work…you wrinkle and shrink.” The question was “What does it mean to grow old?” The responses of the children contain many of the stereotypes our society attributes to the elderly. They also show that this negative picture develops from a very early age. There is a stigma to growing old. The notion is that for the elderly there is no play or fun, no money, no usefulness, and no attractiveness.
It is important to recognize that in considering the elderly, we all really are talking about ourselves. It is inevitable: we will all age; we will all become the elderly. A participant at a recent geriatric conference reported being asked by a friend, “Give me the inside scoop… what can I do to keep from getting older?” The response the person received was simple: “Die now!” There is no other way to avoid aging. So, for those not themselves among the elderly, in thinking about the older person, imagine yourself years in the future, because many of the circumstances will probably be the same.
Of the approximately 240 million people in the United States, 29 million are over age 65. This is the group arbitrarily defined as the elderly, or aged. Each day, 3000 die and 4000 reach their 65th birthday, so there is a net gain of 1000. By the year 1990, it is estimated that over 35 million persons will be over age 65; this will represent a larger percentage of the population than ever before. Consequently, the problems of the elderly, including alcoholism, that will be discussed are going to become a growing concern for our society.
Coping styles. Despite the inevitability of aging and despite the inevitability of physical problems arising as the years pass, there is an important thing to keep in mind. It has been said many times and in many different ways that you are as young as you want to be. This is only possible, however, if the person has some strengths going for him. The best predictor of the future, specifically how someone will handle growing old, is how the individual has handled the previous years. Individuals who have demonstrated flexibility as they have gone through life will adapt best to the inevitable stresses that come with getting older. These are the people who will be able to feel young, regardless of the number of birthdays they have celebrated.
Interestingly, as people get older, they become less similar and more individual. The only thing that remains alike for this group is the problems they face. There is a reason for this. Everyone going through life relies most heavily on the coping styles that seem to have served them well previously. With years and years of living, gradually individuals narrow down their responses. What looks, at first glance, like an egocentricity or eccentricity of old age is more likely a life-long behavior that has become one of the person’s exclusive methods for dealing with stress. An example illustrating this point arose in the case of an elderly surgical patient for whom psychiatric consultation was requested. This man had a constant smile. In response to any question or statement by the nurse or doctors, he smiled, which was often felt to be wholly inappropriate. The treatment staff requested help in comprehending the patient’s behavior. In the process of the psychiatric consultation, it became quite understandable. Friends, neighbors, and family of the man consistently described him as “good ole Joe, who always had a friendly word and a smile for everyone, the nicest man you’d ever want to meet.” Now under the most fearful of situations, with many cognitive processes depleted, he was instinctively using his faithful, basic coping style. Very similarly, the person who goes through life with a pessimistic streak may become angry and sad in old age. People who have been fearful under stress may be timid and withdrawn in old age. On the other hand, people who have been very organized and always reliant on a definite schedule may try to handle everything by making lists in old age. What is true in each case is that the person has settled into a style that was present and successful in earlier life.
Main stresses. In working with the elderly, in order to understand what is evolving in an individual case, it is imperative for helping professionals to consider every possible piece of information. Integration of data from the social, medical, and emotional realm is essential for understanding what makes the elderly person tick in order to make an intelligent treatment plan. Four areas of stress should be considered in dealing with the elderly: stresses that arise from social factors; psychological factors; biological or physical problems; and, unfortunately, iatrogenic stresses due to the helping professions as they serve (or inadequately serve) the elderly.


Nebulizers are made from plastic and come with either a face mask or a mouthpiece. They function simply and effectively.
The liquid solutions used in the nebulizer are mixed with a diluter (unless specifically stated in instructions or by your doctor). Your doctor will prescribe the amount of medication and diluter. Ventolin, Atrovent, Bricanyl, Pumicort, and Intal solutions are available in single-dose plastic vials. The solution is placed in the nebulizer chamber and compressed air from the pump creates a fine mist which penetrates the airways. (Nebulizers can also be driven by an oxygen cylinder.) The mist is then inhaled through the mask or mouthpiece.
Nebulizer therapy is the most effective method of medication for an acute asthma attack. The mist from the nebulizer penetrates quickly and easily through the bronchial trees and into the lungs.
•Children and adults who have difficulty using aerosol sprays;
•People in geographically isolated areas where rapid access to medical assistance is not possible;
•Those patients with severe chronic airway obstructions which are unresponsive to high doses of aerosol inhalants and spacers.
•Bronchodilators, for opening up the airways and helping clear obstructive mucus (including Atrovent, Alupent, Respolin, Ventolin, Bricanyl and Berotec);
•Preventive medication, such as Intal and Pulmicort;
•Some antibiotics.


This group of illnesses includes those disorders that are not due either to allergic causes or to some abnormality of the anatomy of the nose.

Atrophic Rhinitis
More common in women for reasons that are not clear, this is a disorder in which the lining of the nose becomes chronically inflamed and thinned and large numbers of scabs accumulate on the lining membrane of the nose. Patients with this problem are most bothered by two symptoms: a characteristic sensation of nasal congestion in spite of a wide-open nasal passageway, and a foul odor, called ozena, that comes from the nose. Ozena is caused by a bacterial infection of the lining of the nose.
Atrophic rhinitis is uncomfortable to have and difficult to treat. The cause of atrophic rhinitis is not known, although a causative role for bacteria, chemical fumes, cigarette smoke, and viral agents all have been suggested.

Cold Air Rhinitis
You’ve probably walked down a cold, windy street and experienced mild nasal congestion, runny nose, and occasional sneezing. This is such a common experience that most of us consider it to be normal. However, some people experience severe nasal symptoms on exposure to cold air. In these people, mast cells release the same mediators that they would if the person had been exposed to something to which they were allergic, causing these people to experience symptoms very similar to severe allergic rhinitis. However, this is not an allergy because cold is not an allergen and no IgE antibodies are involved.

Eosinophilic Non-allergic Rhinitis (E-NAR) Syndromes
When a physician makes a smear of your nasal mucus to examine under a microscope, he or she is looking to see what type(s) of cells are present as a means of differentiating one form of rhinitis from another. The eosinophil, a red-staining cell easily seen in nasal smears, is one cell doctors always look for. Although common in each of the three types of allergic rhinitis and frequently called “allergy cells,” they also appear in the nasal mucus of a group of non-allergic rhinitis syndromes called the eosinophilic non-allergic rhinitis syndromes (E-NAR syndromes).
The symptoms of E-NAR syndromes are no different from those of the other forms of non-allergic rhinitis, and can include nasal congestion, runny nose, and sneezing. These syndromes are likely to be seen in patients who also happen to suffer from asthma, chronic sinus infections, nasal polyps, or have severe reactions to aspirin.
While only your doctor can distinguish the subtleties between one form of eosinophilic rhinitis from another, you should be aware that these forms of nasal dysfunction exist and can be identified by a nasal smear. It is also important that you and your doctor know that a nasal smear full of eosinophils does not always mean that you are allergic, a misconception held by many physicians and patients.


Psoriasis, a disease characterized by red patches on the skin, often covered with silvery scales, is more a cosmetically than physically debilitating disease. Nonetheless, it’s a serious problem for those who suffer from it – and even more serious for those who take prescription steroids to alleviate it.
Steroid therapy can cause major nutrient losses of calcium and phosphorus, contribute to adrenal exhaustion, weaken the immune system, and promote depression, among other undesirable side effects. But there are alternatives, and I’d recommend trying them before resorting to prescription drugs.
Daily topical applications of vitamins A and D oils have improved the condition of psoriasis sufferers dramatically; as has increased protein intake and the following supplement regimen:
•      A high-potency multiple vitamin with chelated minerals, a.m. and p.m.
•      Vitamin C, 1,000 mg., with bioflavonoids, rutin, hesperidins, and rose hips, 2-4 times daily.
•      High-potency chelated multiple mineral tablets, a.m. and p.m.
•      Vitamin A (water soluble), 10,000 Ш, 3 times daily for 5 days a week.
•      Vitamin В complex, 100 mg. (time release), a.m. and p.m.
•      Vitamin E (dry form), 100-400 IU, 3 times daily
•      Lecithin capsules, three, 3 times daily


The dose of morphine used for spinal therapy depends on the route of administration and the patient’s current opioid therapy. The dose is then adjusted according to effect and toxicity.
Spinal morphine is not without central side effects and respiratory depression, sedation, dysphoria, nausea and vomiting are all reported. However, the incidence is much less in cancer patients who have previously been receiving systemic morphine than in opioid naive patients. If severe, treatment is with small doses of naloxone. Occasionally, physical withdrawal symptoms occur if systemic opioid therapy is stopped after commencement of spinal therapy; in the absence of signs of respiratory depression, the previous systemic therapy should be weaned over several days.
Systemic side effects including urinary retention and constipation can occur but are less common and less severe in cancer patients who are not opioid naive.
High doses or high concentrations of spinal morphine may produce hyperaesthesia, dysaesthesia or myoclonus.
Tolerance will develop with continued spinal therapy, necessitating dose increments. There is no evidence that tolerance is particularly more or less likely to develop than with systemic therapy, and fear of tolerance is not a reason to withhold spinal therapy if it is indicated.
Intraventricular morphine-There are reports describing the administration of morphine into the cerebral ventricles of patients suffering uncontrolled pain related to advanced cancer. Whilst good pain relief is reported, the role of this therapy requires further evaluation and should be regarded as experimental at this time.


“Mark was a miracle and a miracle worker in my life,” says Wendy, her frown lines disappearing, her eyes brightening as they always do when she talks about her husband and their life together before cancer debilitated and ultimately killed him. Relaxed when he is being discussed in her therapy session, Wendy seems to find Mark’s memory soothing and stabilizing.
Before she met Mark at her sister’s wedding, Wendy was a nineteen-year-old college dropout, living with four other girls in a rough neighborhood, bartending until two in the morning, partying until dawn, and then sleeping all day. “Drinking, doing drugs, sleeping around”—Wendy lists the activities that consumed most of her time. “But everything fell into place after I met him,” she continues. “He made me believe in myself. Didn’t put up with my bullshit. Helped me see that my wild, crazy lifestyle was making me miserable.”
Your first reaction to a great loss like Wendy’s is likely to be shock or denial. You are literally blinded by the magnitude and repercussions of it. “This can’t be happening” is apt to be the first thought that pops into your mind, quickly followed by “I can’t deal with this. This pain is too much, too overwhelming.”
Instantly and automatically, unconscious defense mechanisms take action to protect you, often doing such a “good” job that you feel completely numb. And until you are psychologically ready to face it, you continue blocking out, minimizing, intellectualizing, or denying outright reality and the pain that comes with it. The trouble is that while you shut out painful emotions, you anesthetize all of your other feelings as well—including sexual ones. As Wendy put it, “After Mark was diagnosed, I didn’t feel anything for a while. Oh, I walked and talked, smiled, and even had sex if Mark was up to it. But I wasn’t really there. My body worked, but I wasn’t in it. I was like a zombie.” And zombies are not known for their high sex drives.


HIV/AIDS is associated with severe social stigma and many people are forced to separate from their communities even after doing the first screening test for HIV. One positive result in a screening test in non-confirmation of HIV infection. Ethical issues related to HIV infection are mainly for ensuring that a person with HIV infection leads a life of dignity.
HIV testing should not be done without informed consent of the person to be tested. This means that the person to be tested should have understood what test results would mean and its likely impact on his/ her life. Routine screening for HIV infection of all pregnant women and people needing surgery should not be done. The only exceptions to testing without taking informed consent are before donating blood or blood products and during routine surveillance. In both these situations the persons who test positive are not notified.
People with HIV infection have as much right to get medical treatment from any source as everyone else. It is unethical to deny medical treatment to a person with HIV or AIDS. Similarly, it is also unethical to deny employment to a person with HIV infection.


Research has revealed that the species originated in Mexico and Central America some 70,000 years ago. Four times it colonized North America, each time being almost wiped out by glaciers during successive ice ages. Each new wave of evening primrose cross-pollinated with survivors and so continued the line.
American Indians are supposed to have used the evening primrose for hundreds of years. According to folklore, a tribe called Flambeau Ojibwe was the first to realize the medicinal properties of the evening primrose plant. They used to soak the whole plant in warm water to make a poultice to heal bruises, they used the plant for skin problems and asthma, and brewed a cough mixture from the roots.
From America, the evening primrose spread all over the world. Botanists first brought the plant from Virginia to Europe in 1614 as a botanical curiosity.
Most of the strains, however, came to Britain during the next century as stowaways in cargo ships carrying cotton. As cotton is light, soil was used as ballast. The ballast was dumped on reaching port, and with it stray seeds of evening primrose. Even today there are areas around the major ports, such as Liverpool, where evening primrose plants – descendants of the cotton ballast – grow in profusion.
In Europe, the evening primrose became known as ‘King’s Cure All’ by those who knew its almost magical medicinal properties. For centuries, however, the evening primrose was left to straggle along without anyone but a few specialist herbalists taking much notice. It wasn’t until this century that scientists began to look at the plant for its industrial potential in such things as paint.
In 1917 a German scientist called Unger examined the plant, and found that the seeds contained 15% oil, which was extractable with light petroleum. In 1919 the Archives of Pharmacology published a paper by Heiduschka and Luft who were the first to do a detailed analysis of the oil. They extracted 14% oil with ether, and apart from the normal oleic and linoleic acids, found a new fatty acid, which they named gammalinolenic acid (y-linolenic acid). In 1927, three German scientists repeated the Heiduschka and Luft test, and came up with a more detailed analysis of the chemical structure of this gammalinolenic acid (GLA).
Twenty-two years later Dr J.P. Riley, a British biochemist in the Department of Industrial Chemistry at Liverpool University, came across the German papers on evening primrose oil and decided to analyze the oil for himself, but this time using modern techniques. So Dr Riley set off for the sand hills near Southport in Merseyside and picked a bunch or two of evening primrose plants. He dried the plants, separated the seeds, and extracted the oil. To his great satisfaction, he found for himself the unique gammalinolenic acid.
It wasn’t until the 1960s, however, that British scientists began investigating the oil for its possible health uses. The first experiment was on rats. The aim of this experiment was to compare the biological activity of the commonly-found linoleic acid with the rare gammalinolenic acid.
The rats were put on a diet lacking in essential fatty acids, and after a few weeks they developed loss of hair and skin problems. They were then divided into two groups. One group was fed linoleic acid and the other group was fed gammalinolenic acid. The results of this first experiment were remarkable. The rats in the GLA group recovered more rapidly than the other group, and there was evidence that the GLA was far more efficiently taken up by the cells of all the important tissues and organs of the body.